outstanding survival techniques. They built houses from snow, it hunted enormous
whales from a small boat, it caught the seals out by Eisloe. Their clothes
were adapted manufactured to the cold weather. They lived it in small groups
helped each other. Their setting surviving: "hunger time" let it
decide only for a child, for its old persons built it a snow house, left it
behind itself and went away.
Innuit built the stand of its winter houses from Walknochen.41 the eskimo
forms an exception within the old Urbevoelkerungen (to the Aborigines). to
put down "a Aboriginal child, who enters negligently a stone or a branch,
by the master older dependent, it again just as, as it before convenient hatte.4âm"
Greek word Arktos or the arctic a country without trees
"The northern polar circle (66,-30 degrees) represents
the lowest degree of latitude, at which there is at least one four-and
twentieth and EN period, in which the sun rises in the winter not over the
horizon and does not go down regarding the summer.
At the northern border of the Copper Inuit area, over the Siebzigsten degree
of latitude around, the polar night is nearly two
months long and becomes still longer, the further north one comes.
In Alert, to northern end of the Ellesmere Iceland, lasts it four months.
In absolute numbers regarded, the arctic
is not the coldest place of the world. In the Subarktis directly in the south
afterwards, there are colder winters, because the
arctic ocean exerts even under its Eismanntel a moderating influence.
The winter temperatures lie only approximately 10 degree below than in the
prairies of north Canada. February is the coldest month. Which
distinguishes the arctic climate, is not absolute cold weather, but the length
of the winters and cools summers. In the
central arctic the sea freezes Julie in October zubis.
In arctic waters for sea mammals the closed ice cover is in the winter the
All sea mammals need air for breathing, and each kind has its special strategies
of becoming with the ice finished particularly carriages the ice, which is
characteristic of the narrow arms of the sea of the central arctic. In contrast
to the moving luggage ice of the open seas landfirm ice at the coast is embodied
and forms a flat, immovable cover, which can become meters thick up to two.
In the north of Alaska or along the east coast of Bafin Iceland landfirm ice
is generally limited to the uferlinie and a few remote bays. But in the central
arctic, where there are fewer tiden and currents, nearly the whole winter
ice is landfest. From the ice problem the sea a more generous host than the
country is apart. All arctic sea mammals are carnivores, and food often gives
it in the abundance. The most seals, walruses and small whales nourish themselves
of fish, shells, tintenfischen, oysters and different macro Plankton kinds
(Krustazeen etc.). The large Greenland whales exclusively nourish themselves
of tiny Krill, by combing the seas with the enormous beard plates in their
muzzle. The sea is is enriches as the country, and all human life in the arctic
concentrated at the coasts. The more southern areas ueberliesssen the Inuit
grossmuetig Kannakapfaluks dog children."
in the bays and gulfs of the central arctic does
not move the ice in the winter nearly, and a blowhole must up to
two meters deeply down-rich. Conically in the cross section, it tapers itself
upward to a point of few Zetimetern diameter,
which is buried under a half meter snow. This snow is favourable for the seal,
because it is air permeable and offers a certain protection
against cold weather and possible Fressfeinde. From the top snow-covered can
be Atemloe completely invisible. The Copper Inuit hunters
had to solve two substantial problems: first of all, as one finds
a blowhole used at all, and secondly they had to know, when the seal came
up for breathing. With other words, that hunters had to hieneinstossen its
harpoon into an animal, which he could not even see. The seal is an intelligent
and adaptive animal. It will never use a blowhole, at which the snow was obviously
turned up. And it does not come up, if it smells something suspicious. A pair
of feet, those in the snow over it scharren, a coughing and already is it
patience cost seals Eisbear to lie in wait for to a seal. It meant that one
must stand still several-day-long for hours and sometimes even completely,
and at temperatures from -40 degrees to - outermost concentration required
45 degrees of C and, because the hunter was warned only completely briefly
and had to zustossen lightning-like. Its reflexes had to be still sharper
than its harpoon point.
and justice of 78
wars were rare with the Inuit. Where it came nevertheless
to it, the hostile actions were limited to a surprise attack
by a handful of krieger. The goal was to meet the enemy unprepared and kill
then all. Soche kregerischen actions,
which were far common with the Indian peoples in the south, gave it only at
the more strongly hierarchically structured init's groups.
In Alaska and in the Einzugsbebiet of the Mackenzie Deltas for example everyone
of the different Inuit societies controlled an exactly defined territory and
lived practically in continuous enmity with their neighbours.
Here wars were relatively frequent, both between verschiednen Inuit groups
and between the Inuit and the Indian. With the Inuit of the central arctic
against it that
Netsilik, Iglulik, Karibu and copilot by Inuit war was nearly completely unknown.
Because they were not more friedfertiger than their compatriots
in the west, but because they had neither the social structures and
institutions still another sufficient population-closely, with whom war actions
would have appeared necessary or meaningful.
wars tend to take place between groups of comparatively
strangers. In the central arctic insbesonere were acts of violence lonelier,
more perlloenlicher: Mor with other words imGegensatz to the plate
from always friendly, smiling eskimo precariously often seemed
to murder completely. Inden early 20's asked the traveler Knut Ramussen a
Dor of fifteen Copper Inuit families in the proximity of Bathurst Inlet. aalle
men in or other way in a Toetungdelikt had been involved already.
were naturally different, but most frequently rivalries put behind around
women. As we will still see, most could not draw no more up than a fraction
of their newborn girls copilot by Inuit because of the hard living conditions.
The result was that there were not sufficient marriagable women. Since the
men were forced in the Inuit society, somehow a woman to procure itself, is
not it a miracle that it came frequently to acts of violence.
jealousy were likewise common motives. In einenr
Geschicht einCopper Inuit man in its tent sat and sharpened measurers,
which he had manufactured straight. A neighbour came in and made
themselves merry over him. Revenge was firmly embodied as social principle.
and society such stories show that copilot by Inuit, which concerns acts of
violence essentially without laws in our current sense it lived. There were
recognized behavior rules, but except private acts of revenge and self-defense
no possibility of interspersing it. Without police, army, court yards and
prisons one was exclusively on the own strength and dependent on the assistance
of relatives and friends. Therefore also the high murder-guessed/advised.
Because each man had to worry about his fishing rod genenesses,
and on the act not necessarily also the punishment followed. Murder was not
even seriously socially outlawed. Many very outstanding men were at
least after our conceptions murderers.
The first European, who copilot by met inuit,
was Samuel Hearne. Early to one July morning in the year 1771 its both leaders,
Chipewyan chipewyan-und an Yellowknife Indian, fell over a
fishing village with bloody case at lower copilot by mine the River
and killed all 21 inhabitants. Hearnes report 80
1-in of the world of the spirit of
The Schamane was the mediator between the world of humans and the world of
the Uebersinnlichen. it or it had power over different spirit, the spirit
of animals, of dead ones or the "spirit of air" the Schamane: Aid
spirit to beschoeren and ask, lasts the own spirit in Trance stays, is the
basic principle of the shame anise mash, and the Schamanen was masters to
achieve and use for its purposes this mental condition. Egg trace condition
was caused by rhythmic drums, singing and mental self-discipline. As long
as it was in Trance, the Schamane with the spirit could talk and was sometimes
also about ihen possessed. It or it could make long mirror-image-ritual journeys,
example on the reason of the sea or the moon.
times of the fear and hunger more important of a Schamanen had mostly with
the fear too do; Fear of the unknown quantity, fear of emergency and misfortune.
Bad spirit was a pervasive threat, which only the Schamane could turn away.
Sometimes it occurred that a village or a camp of bad spirit became afflicted
generally was that the spirit of dead, which was maliciously gewsen old with
that. They could be killed in a Trance Stzung by the Schamen.
The most powerful spirit was Kannkapfluk, which lived with a dwarf named Unga
in a snow house on the sea-bottom. If the people hurt one of their taboos
to the example, by cooking Karibufleisch on the sea ice or too much in the
dunkelen winter days sewed -, Unga got all seals into its underwater snow
house, and the people had hungern. The Schamane held then ine meeting in the
dance house, which was naturally built on the sea ice. It left a long rope
with a loop at the end by the soil of the house down there. All versmmalten
around the rope and tuned itself a traditional swearing to singing
woman there down, her wants to leave.
She can not catch the young sea-sea gulls,
This man cannot bring the things in order.
There, where no humans live, I want to
go and make the things quite.